Q. 1. Answer any one of the following question in about 40-60 word.

(a) ‘Indian sculpture was mostly meant for temple ornamentation’, Justify in brief.

Ans. The Sculpture in Indian subcontinent, partly because of the climate of the Indian subcontinent making the long term survival of organic materials difficult, essentially consists in sculpture of stone, metal or terracotta. It is clear there was a great deal of painting, and sculpture in wood and ivory, during these periods, but there are only a few survivals. The main Indian religions had all, after hesitant starts, developed the use of religious sculpture by around the start of the Common Era, and the use of stone was becoming increasingly widespread. The first known sculpture in the Indian subcontinent is from the Indus Valley civilization, and a more widespread tradition of small terracotta figures, mostly either of women or animals, which predates it.

Q. 2. Answer any one of the following question in about 40-60 words.

(b) Describe the standing posture of ‘Nataraja’.

Ans. Explanation: He is surrounded by a ring of flames, standing on a lotus pedestal, lifting his left leg (or in rate case, the right leg) and balancing / trampling upon a demon shown as a dwarf (Apasmara or Muyalaka) who symbolizes ignorance.

The classical form of the depiction appears in stone reliefs, as at the Ellora Caves and the Badami Caves, by around the 6th century Around the 10th century, it emerged in Tamil Nadu in its mature and best known expression in Chola bronzes, of various heights typically less than four feet, some over. The Nataraja reliefs have been identified in historic artwork from many part of South Asia, in southeast Asia such as in Bali, Cambodia, and in central Asia. 


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