Course Code: EHI-01(MODERN INDIA:1857-1964)
Assignment Code: AST/TMA/2019-20
Total Marks: 100

Note: All questions are compulsory. Marks are indicated against each question.
Section 1: Answer each question in about 500 words each.
Q.1.What do you understand by the term ‘de-industrialisation’? What was its impact on the Indian Economy? 
Ans.De-industrialisation is the reverse process of industrialisation, happen in colonial India.The destruction of traditional India industries was one of the earliest consequences of colonialism to be noticed and documented in this country. While it was evidently connected with the growth of modern factory industry in England, the beginning of the process of destruction of Indian cottage industries lay further back, in the eighteenth century, when the products of Indian industries were still prized as valuable items of commerce. In that early stage of mercantile capitalism the source of profit of the East Indian company was the difference between the cost prices in India and the sale prices in England of the Indian industrial products like cotton and silk textiles. This price difference, that is, the profit rates of the English East India Company, could be increased if the Indian cost price at which East India company purchased goods from the Indian artisans, could be lowered. So long as there was a competitive market in India, that is, so long as the English East India company was competing in the Indian market, with other East India Companies of the French or the Dutch and with other merchants of Indian and Asian origin, the Indian artisans were in a good bargaining position. But in the last decades of the eighteenth century the British gradually eliminates most of their competitors, in particular the French and the Dutch.
Impact of De-industrialisation on Indian Economy – The English Company’s purchase together with the purchases of the servants of that company in their private capacity accounted for a very large portion of the marketed textiles of superior quality in Bengal. As we all know, a monopolist can influence the market to his own advantage which enabled the English traders to reduce the prices paid to the native artisans in this country and thus to reap high profits from sale in the European market. The excessive exploitation of Indian artisans weakened the very basic of our handicraft industries by reducing the artisans to a low level of income. It also destroyed the possibility of accumulation of resources to invest in the industry and to improve its technology. As we know, accumulation of capital and a technological revolution occurred in England in the last decades of the eighteenth and early decades of the nineteenth century. The industrial revolution first of all wiped out the market for India’s artisans in Europe, because the economies of large scale production in the new English factories made it impossible for artisanal products to compete with factory products. By the beginning of the nineteenth century the staple industrial exports, cotton textiles, began to decline and soon they caused to be exported. Some other items, that is, indigo and raw silk, continued to exported though from 1813 it was no longer the East India Company but private trade which became the agency for others. Not only was the export market of the Indian artisans taken away by the foreign factories, but the home market began to be invaded by imported factory products.

Q.2.(OR) Describe the different stages of the Civil Disobedience Movement.   
Ans.After gap of about eight years, which is after non-cooperation movement, Congress again gave the call for a mass movement in the year 1930, which is known as the Civil Disobedience Movement. The developments in the Indian situation since the withdrawal of the Non-cooperation Movement, and the up changing attitude of the British Government to the Indians, prepared the ground for the Civil Disobedience Movement.
There are different stages of Civil Disobedience Movement, which are described below: -
1)First stage of Civil Disobedience Movement, March 1931:-The Lahore Congress (1929) had left the choice of the precise methods of non-violent struggle for Purna Swaraj to Gandhi. It was resolved that a Manifesto or pledge of Independence would be taken altogether India by as many people as possible on 26 January 1930. On this date civil disobedience was supposed to commence. It was declared Independence day.
2)Second stage:- The true months, March – December 1931 – Around September – October 1930, Civil Disobedience entered a second, more contradictory, phase. Pressures for current were mounting as the Depression began having its major impact, and the UP Congress had reluctantly sanction non-payment of rent in October. Incidents of poor peasant and tribal militancy and violence multiplied in many areas. At the same time, official reports began speaking of a marked decline of enthusiasm and support among urban traders, many of whom started breaking earlier pledges not to sell imported goods.
3)Third stages (1932-34, Civil Disobedience Again):-Out maneuvered and facing repressive measures on an entirely unprecedented scale, the national movement still fought on valiantly for about a year and a half. 1,20,000 People were jailed in the first three months –an indication, however, not so much of a more expensive movement than 1930, but of more intense and systematic repression, for the figures soon began to decline fairly fast. Bombay city and Bengal were described as the “two black spots” by Willington in April 1932: Guajarati Small Traders were still staunchly with the congress, and Bengal remained a nightmare partially because of sporadic agrarian unrest and more due to terrorism. Rural response seems to have been less on the whole that in 1930, though a village like as in Khadi was still with holding revenue in 1933, despite confiscation of 2,000 acres, public whipping, and electric shocks, Later Gandhiji suspended Civil Disobedience temporarily in May 1933, and formally withdraw it in April 1934.

Section 2: Answer in about 250 words each.
Q.3.Explain the causes of the Revolt of 1857. 
Ans.The revolt of 1857 forms one of the most important chapters in the history of the struggle of the Indian people for liberation from the British rule. It shook the foundations of the British empire in India and at some points it seemed as though the British rule would end for all time to come.
There are several reasons which led to broke out this revolt and they are as explained below :–
1)Exploitation of the peasantry:- The new land settlements like – Permanent, Ryorwari and Mahalwari formed by East India company were more oppressive than the other. In all of these the peasants had to pay beyond their means and any adverse natural shifts like droughts or flood compelled them to go for loans to the money lenders who charged exorbitant interest.
2)Alienation of the Middle and Upper Strata of Indians:- During the period of the Mughal or even in the administration of the princes and chieftains, the Indians served at all the places – both lower and higher. The disappearance of these Indian States and their replacement by the British administration deprived the Indians of higher posts which were now taken mainly by the British. The Indians now only served as subordinates and on other petty positions in the administration, and this caused upper strata and middle class felt oppressed by the British.
3)Annexation of Princely States:- Annexation of princely states like Awadh, Jhansi, Nagpur etc. adversely affected the rules and people of such states. This action hurt the Patriotic loyalty and sense of dignity of people.
4)The Alien Rule:- Another important reason of the unpopularity of the British was alien nature of their rule.
5)Impact on the sepoys:- The revolt of 1857 originated with the muting of the sepoys. These sepoys were drawn mainly from the peasant population of North and North-West India. The East India companies new land policies ruined peasantry, which affected sepoys too. In order to supplement their declining agriculture income, most of them have joined in the military service. But sepoys were treated roughly by the British.
6)Threat to religion:- During rule of East India company, an impression was created among Indian sepoys, that their religion was being attacked by the British.
7)The immediate cause:- The immediate cause of 1857 revolt was the introduction and rumour of greased cartridges of the new Enfield rifle. This new rifle which had recently been introduced into the army had a greased paper cover whose end had to be bitten off, before the cartridge was loaded into rifle. The grease was in some instances made of beef and pig fat. This completely enraged the Hindu and Muslim sepoys and made them believe that the government was deliberately trying to destroy their religion, and this led to revolt among sepoys.

Q.4.Write a note on the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal.
Ans.In 1905, when Bengal partition was done by Lord Curzon, there were sharp press campaigns against the partition scheme, numerous public meetings in opposition to it and the drafting of petitions to the Government for its annual men. But the evident failure of these methods, led the protestors in search a new technique from the middle class of 1905 and this resulted in the discovery of the boycott of British goods as an effective weapon. The boycott of British product was followed by the advocacy of ‘Swadeshi’ or exhorting purchasers to buy indigenously produced goods as a patriotic duty. ‘Charkha’ (the spinning wheel) came to typify the popular concern for the country’s economic self-sufficiency and the holding of ‘Swadeshi mela’ or fairs for selling handicrafts and other articles became a regular feature.
So,a considerable enthusiasm was created for undertaking ‘Swadeshi’ or Indian enterprises and this was known as ‘Swadeshi’ Movement.

Q.5.(OR) Write a note on the Indian National Army (INA) 
Ans. Indian National Army (INA) equally play an important role, like Quite India Movement (QIM), which waged battle against the British from foreign soil.
Formation of INA:-There were many Indian revolutionaries working abroad for the country’s issue. Rasbehari Bose, living as a fugitive from British, formed Indian National Army (INR), in Bangkok on June 1942. Later in 1943, Subhash Chandra Bose joined Indian National Army at Singapore.
Actions of INA:-The INA in a few months time had three fighting brigades named after Gandhi, Azad and Nehru. Soon other brigades were raised, namely the Subhash brigade and Rani Jhansi brigade. The overseas Indian contributed heavily in terms of money and material for the army. The slogans of INA were “Jai Hind” and “Delhi Chalo”.The most famous was Subhash declaration that “you give me blood I will give you freedom.”

Q.6.(OR) Discuss the details of the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms.
Ans.By 1916 all parties in India as well as Britain began to think that some changes in the structure of government were necessary. The aspirations of the Indian’s had also increased during this period. As a response to the political pressure in India during the war years and to buy support of Indians the Montague – Chelmsford scheme was introduced by the British. According to this Montagu – Chelmsford act, the chief executive authority remained vested in the Governor General who remained responsible to the British Parliament through the Secretary of State and not to the Indian Legislature. The reform provided for a bi-cameral legislature at the centre. The two Houses were the council of state and the Legislative Assembly. The council of State was to consist of 60 members of whom at least 33 were elected members. Not more than 20 nominated members could be officials. The Legislative Assembly was to consist of 145 members of whom 104 by Muslims, 2 by Sikhs, 7 by Land holders, 9 by Europeans and 4 by the Indian Commercial Community. The communal electro rates were extended to include the Sikhs also. It should be noted that these seats were distributed amongst the provinces not on the basis of their population but their so-called importance. The life of the Assembly was to be three years, but it could by extended by the Governor General. Under this Montague – Chelmsford reform partial responsible government was introduced in the provinces.

Section 3: Answer in about 100 words each.
Q.7.Write short notes on any two of the following:
(a)Swaraj Party:-
Ans.The Pro-Congress or Swarajits wanted the constructive programme to be coupled with a political programme of council – entry. The matter came to head in December 1922 at the Gaya Session of the Congress where Rajagopalachari led opposition to council Entry forcing C.R. Das to tender resignation from the president ship of the congress. On being outvoted C.R. Das announced the formation of Swaraj Party on 31st December, 1922 with himself as President and Motilal as secretary. The immediate objective of Swaraj Party was ‘Speedy attainment of full Dominion Status’.

(d)Non-Aligned Movement:-
Ans.The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) was largely a product of India’s efforts. The effort was aimed at organising a collective answer to ‘bloc politics’ of the great powers in international affairs. It also aimed at develop friendly relations among the countries who were trying to free themselves from colonial domination. Another Related aim was to promote peace in the world. The NAM took a concrete shape with the holding of its first conference in 1961 in Belgrade.


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