IGNOU Free Solved Assignments Subject Code: EPS-09 Assignment Code: EPS-09 | ASST | TMA | 2019-20

Course Code: EPS-09
Assignment Code: EPS-09/ASST/TMA/2019-20
Total Marks: 100
Answer questions in each category. Answer in your own words. .
(A) DCQ: Answer any two of the following in about 500 words each.
Q. 1. What is comparative politics? Give an historical overview of the development of comparative study of politics.
Ans. As the term itself points out, comparative politics is about comparing political phenomena. The emphasis is on both the method of inquiry i.e., comparative, and the substance into which inquiry is directed i.e., political phenomena.
The nature and scope of comparative politics has been determined historically by changes in these features,            (a) Subject matter (b) Vocabulary and (c) Political perspective. To understand where, why and how these changes took place we have to look at what is focus of study at a particular historical period, what are the tools, languages or concepts being used for the study and what is the vantage point, perspective and purpose of enquiry.
Development of comparative politics – A historical Overview :- The subject matter of comparative politics has been determined both by the geographical space (i.e., countries, regions) which has constituted its field as well as the dominant ideas concerning social reality and change which shaped the approaches to comparative studies (capitalist, socialist, mixed and indigenous). Likewise, at different historical junctures the thrust or the primary concern of the studies kept changing.
The origins of comparative study of politics :- In its earliest incarnation, the comparative study of politics comes to us in the form of studies done by the Greek Philosopher Aristotle.  Aristotle studies the constitution of 150 states and classified them into a ‘typology of regimes’. His classification was presented in terms of both descriptive and normative categories, i.e., he not only described and classified regimes and Political systems in terms of their types e.g., democracy, aristocracy, monarchy etc., he also distinguished them on the basis of certain ‘norms of good governance’. On the basis of this comparison he divided regimes into good and bad – ideal and perverted.
The late nineteenth and Early Twentieth century’s :- The preoccupation with philosophical and speculative questions concerning the ‘good order’ or the ‘ideal state’ and the use, in the process, of abstract and normative vocabulary, persisted in comparative studies of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century’s. The late nineteenth and early twentieth century’s signified the period when ‘liberalism’ was the reigning ideology and European countries enjoyed dominance world politics. Comparative studies during this period were largely concerned with a comparative study of institutions, the distribution of power, the relationship between the different layers government.
The second world war and after :- With the end of Second World War a number of significant developments had taken place, including the waning of European (British) hegemony, the emergence and entrenchment of United States of America as the Hageman in world politics and economy, and the bifurcation of the world into two ideological camps viz. (western) capitalism and (eastern) socialism. In this period a powerful critique of the institutional approach emerged in the middle of 1950s. The critique had its roots in behaviorism which had emerged as a new movement in the discipline of politics aiming to provide scientific rigor to the discipline and develop a ‘Science of Politics’.
The 1970s and Challenge to the Developmentalism :-Towards the 1970s, developmentalism came to be criticized for favouring abstract models, which flattened out differences among specific political/social/cultural systems, in order to study them within a single universalistic framework.
The 1980s : the Return of the State :- During the later 1970s and into the 1980s, still reflecting the backlash against developmentalism a number of theories and subject matters emerged into the field of comparative politics. These included bureaucratic – authoritarianism, indigenous concepts of change, transitions to democracy, the politics of structural adjustment, neo liberalism privatisation.
The late twentieth century (Globalisation and Emerging Trends/possibilities) :-
1)         Scaling down of systems :- Much of the development of comparative political analysis in the period 1960s to 1980s can be seen as an ever widening range of countries being included as cases, with more variables being added to the models, such as policy, ideology, governing experience, and so on.
2)         Civil Society and Democratizations Approach(es) : The disintegration of Soviet Union brought into currency the notion of the ‘end of history’
Q. 3. Explain the main features of China’s development strategy in the post-Mao period.
Ans. The Chinese model of economic growth is both a study in contrast and comparison with the Soviet-style development Post-Mao leadership regards the Cultural Revolution as a period when “Left” mistakes derailed the process of economic development. During this period, national income suffered a loss of 500 billion Yuan, and the living standard of the people declined.
With the passing away of Mao Zedong in 1976 and the suppression of the “gang of four”, who was Mao loyalists, power passed in the hands of Den Xiaoping and so called “capitalist roaders”? The new leadership instituted large scale economic reforms in the direction of what it described as “socialism with Chinese characteristics.” In practice, it meant the repudiation of Maoist strategy of development based on early introduction of doctrine socialist features in China’s economy. It pushed China in the direction of neo-liberal reforms through Deng officially stated that the new strategy of economic growth had no connection with ‘bourgeois liberalisation.’
The government introduced the “household responsibility system” in agriculture by parceling out the collectively owned land to peasants on a long term lease-hold bars with provisions for the rights of inheritance. In the five years between the 12th and 13th congress of the communist party, China achieved great progress in the economic reforms and the opening of the economy to the outside world also began in a big way. Industrial re-structuring was accomplished. Investment in productive and profitable enterprise was increased. Post-Mao development strategy has largely succeeded in making China an industrial giant and also self-sufficient in the agricultural sphere.
The given followings are some features of Chinese strategy of development :-
1)         Abolition of landlordism, the end of the unproductive commune system, establishment of family leasehold farms in agriculture, peasant initiative in rural enterprises encouraged.
2)         Abolition of mass poverty, promotion of education and removal of illiteracy, wide spread health services, population control with a single child mom.
3)         Economic reforms which have almost liberalised the economy and opened it upto the outside world.
4)         China’s polices recognise the importance of market, profitability, competition and integration with the world economy but on its own terms.
5)         Chinese leadership regards China at the primary stage of socialism and it may take more than a century to complete the transition to socialism.
6)         China’s development strategy should be based on pragmatic considerations. As Deng said, that cat could be white or black, what is important is that it should be able to catch mice.
(B) MCQ: Answer any four of the following in about 250 words each.
Q. 7. Describe the main features of colonial states.
Ans. The colonial state had certain features that distinguish it from the state in Europe and the post-colonial state in the developing countries. Firstly it was an instrument of control and oppression over the local inhabitants. To this end it established strong bureaucracies, policies and military forces to maintain order. Hence unlike Europe it was an authoritarian and not a liberal democratic state. Highly centralised and modern systems of administration were established. Secondly it was expected to uphold the economic and political interests of the European colonial rulers and their home country and not that of the local inhabitants. Thirdly, the colonial rulers also believed that they had a “civilizing mission” to perform and attempted to transplant their culture and values in the colonies. They hence saw colonialism as a “White man’s burden”.
Q. 8. How is Presidential form of government different from the Parliamentary form of government?
Ans. There is difference between Parliamentary form of government and Presidential form of government.
Parliamentary form of government is the result of historical evolution in Great Britain. It is also known as ‘Cabinet government’ on even ‘Prime Ministerial government’. The chief characteristic of this type of government is that the executive is a part of the legislature and is responsible to it for all its policy and acts.
Whereas, the Presidential system is based upon the doctrine of separation of powers. It means that the legislature and the executive are kept apart. The chief executive is the real executive as well as the head of the government. He is elected by the people for a definite period.
Q. 10. What is federalism? Highlight the essential characteristics of federalism.
Ans. Federalism is a form of government where the powers are distributed between the central and provincial governments and both have their separate and well defined areas of authority. Here, the totality of government power is divided and distributed by the national constitution between a Central Government and those of the individual states.
A federal government has an agreement and there are certain features that ensure its proper working. They  are :-
1)         A written constitution.
2)         Division of powers.
3)         Independence of judiciary.
(1) Written Constitution :-Firstly, the federal government is the creation of agreement which takes place as a result of a constitution in which the powers of federal government and the federating units and the details of their rights are listed. This constitution is expected to be written and rigid enough so that neither centre nor the federating units may change at their own will.
(2) Division of power :-An indispensible quality of federal government is the distribution of powers between central government and federating units.
(3) Thirdly there should be an independent institution to settle the disputes with regard to the jurisdiction of the centre and the units and among the units.
Q. 13. Write a note on political economy approach in the study of comparative politics.  
Ans. Political economy refers to a specific way of understanding social and political phenomena whereby, economics and politics are not seen as separate domains. It is premised (a) on a relationship between the two and (b) the assumption that this relationship unfolds its multifarious ways. These assumptions constitute important explanatory and analytical frameworks within which social and political phenomena can be studied. Having said this, it is important to point out that whereas the concept of political economy points at a relationship, there is no single meaning which can be attributed to the concept. The specific meaning the concept assumes depends on the theatrical/ideological tradition e.g., liberal or Marxist, within which it is placed, and depending on this positioning, the specific manner in which economics and politics themselves are understood.
Interestingly, the appearance of economics and politics as separate domains is itself a modern phenomenon. From the time of Aristotle till the middle ages, the concept of economics as a self regulating/separate sphere was unknown.
In the years after de-colonization set in, the understanding of relationships between nations, and specific political and social phenomena, was informed by various approaches, viz., ‘institution’, ‘political’ sociology and ‘political economy’. These were geared primarily towards examining the manner in which social values were transmitted and also the structures through which resources were distributed. All these would eventually form the bases or standards along which different countries and cultures could be classified on a hierarch scale of development, and could actually be seen as moving along a trajectory of development and change.
(C) SCQ: Write a short note on any two of the following in about 50 words each.
Q. (i) Democratic Rights and Human Rights.  
Ans. Democratic rights are the provision, enforcement and protection of rights of the individual which defines the criteria for judging the validity of the state. Democratic rights are defined by state and lays downed by state, it is the state which provides the legal framework which guarantees those rights and more importantly since it is the state which provides the legal framework which guarantees those rights and more importantly since it is the state which creates and sustains the rights, whenever the contents of the law changes, the substance of the rights also change.
Human rights on the other hand emphasize upon the universal character of rights-rights simply possessed by human beings as human beings irrespective of the fact that they belong to any state, society, race or religious faith.
Q. (iii) Women’s movement in non-western world.
Ans. Movements for the emancipation of women have continued to emerge in many countries beyond Europe and the U.S. What is notable about these movements is that these have not necessarily followed the pattern of the western movements but on the contrary have located their struggles in their own social and economic perspectives. Hence, these movements are at variance with the Western feminism in terms of their demands and perspectives. The difference in perspective is a result of the differing circumstances in which the women in the other countries, especially the women in the developing countries perceive themselves.
Japanese women had raised crucial issue like double burden of work and the continued social discrimination against women. Women here have entered the market with loss pay and poor working conditions and still have to manage domestic front without the help of man. The women’s’ movements in India were initially organised around the issues of sexual and domestic violence against women but gradually other gender-specific issues were also incorporated in the agenda of women’s groups.

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