IGNOU Free Solved Assignments Course Code: BSHF-101 Solve Assignments

Course Code: BSHF-101
Assignment Code: BSHF-101/AST/TMA/2019-20
Total Marks: 100
Note : All questions are compulsory. Marks are indicated against each question.

DCQ : Answer any two in about 500 words each.
Q.1.How do we study society? Discuss.
Ans.There are some tools or tips to study society and they are given below :-
1)Knowledge various propaganda :- Studying society essentially means knowing that society. Correct knowing of a society would require what to know, what is true knowledge and what are its ingredients. Thus, studying society will contribute to healthy generation and growth of knowledge and the student becomes a creative and responsible knowledge seeker. But knowledge has to be distinguished from propaganda, one should be aware, actually came in mixed packages : some right but some are sensational. Recent researchers have shown that it was mostly due to the media impact coming from the most powerful nation that people accepted the invasion of Iraq as real. But same weight of media impact was not given to the true information (revealed later namely) that Iraq actually did not posses weapons of mass destruction. As a result thought the world has gradually come to know about these true information, the American public does not believe so.

2) Many sided nature of social reality :- Another dimension to knowledge seeking consists in recognizing that a phenomenon under study is actually many-sided though it looks like a simple occurrence. This can be explained with the help of an analogy from nature. We have seen the phenomenon of snow melting. But what are over look at the same time are certain other phenomenon occurring at the same time in association with it : snow is moving, water is forming etc. All social phenomenon are similarly many-sided; though we accept one side for action at a time : A balances study would at least recognize that there are many sides to the phenomenon under study.
All these sides to a phenomenon especially the important ones, present themselves to a student as two or more hours of a dilemma.
Two essential ingredients :- Knowledge creation is based on data and information we gather through use of sensory perceptions. Two essential ingredient for processing for true knowledge consists in (a) objectivity that is remaining free from biases, and (b) Uniformity, that is remaining fair and equal in application.
But these ingredients for knowledge creation are more ‘ideal’ than ‘real’. The only way out of this impasse lies in the stated honesty of a person. This will help prepare a level – playing field for all the players in the world of knowledge to play their games equally and with a sense of justice. Otherwise, staying away from biases has been mired in philosophical debates. Given the real world which has been essentially ridden by inequities and hierarchy, it is always desirable that one states one’s own position and choose a partisan line (with Gandhiji) for example that leave it sheet academic plane. All academic exercises should have relevance to the society we live in.
Gandhiji’s advice :- The real difficulty is that people have no idea of what education truly is. We assess the value of education in the same manner as we assess the value of land or of shares in the stock-exchange market.

Q.4.What do you understand by the term ‘human security’? Discuss.
Ans. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the UN in 1948 states that “everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. However, the concept of human security now encompasses economic, health and environmental concept as well. The specific phrase “human security” was first put forward by the 1994 United National Development Programme (UNDP); Annual Human Development Report. While the term “human security” is of recent origin, the ideas that underlie the concept are not new. These ideas have been around ever since the international Red Cross was founded in the 1860s; it was there in the UN charter and it was lo hoed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
According to Article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the right to security of persons is a fundamental human right, together with a right to life and liberty. Human security emphasizes the need to strengthen empowerment of the citizens. Achievement of human security requires a global political culture that is founded on shared values of human dignity and human rights. Hence important issues in human security like children in war, landmine, and ethnic conflicts should be discussed from abroad human rights perspective. In essence, human security means freedom from pervasive threats to people’s rights, their safety or even their lives.
‘Freedom from fear’ and ‘freedom from want’ have become the phrases in vogue under the human security approach. It was not fully realised how interrelated both truly are. Furthermore, ensuring human rights implies ensuring security. Human security, as defined in the UNDP Report consisted of seven components and dimensions : economic, food, health, environmental, personal, community and political. The main contribution of the UNDP’s conception of human security was focusing on people and highlighting of vulnerability to threats for other non-violence. It saw security as an “integrative” rather than that “defensive concept.” But it seemed to underplay threats from violence. It emphasized that human security has a geographical and even international dimension. Problems of international terrorism, drug trafficking, as well as problems of international migrants spill over outside the boundaries of the nation – state, Democracy and good  governance are very important in promoting human security. Human security does not supplant national security. A human security perspective asserts that the security of the state is not an end in itself. Rather, it is a means of ensuring security for its people. In this context, state security and human security are mutually supportive. Building an effective, democratic state that values its own people and protects minorities is a central strategy for promoting human security.
The term “human security” recognizes the linkage between environment and society. It also recognizes two other features of the link between environment and security. First, that feedback exists between environment and security; for example, environmental degradation may result in population movement, which, in turn, poses a threat to the environment. Human security provides an enabling environment for human development. Where violence or threat of violence makes meaningful progress on the development agenda impossible, enhancing safety for people is a prerequisite. Civil wars and riots depicts such situations. Promoting human development can also be an important strategy for furthering human security.

MCQ : Answer any four questions in about 250 words each.
Q.5.What do you understand by the term ‘Directive Principles’ in our Constitution?
Ans. Directive Principles of State Policy is one of the basic features to our constitution. As the very nomenclature indicates, Directive Principles are guidelines to the government for just and effective governance. The constitution lists a series of them; for instance, provision of equal pay for equal work, prohibition of all intoxicants, especially alcohol, promotion of small and cottage industries etc. Though the Directive Principles are not legally enforceable, this is no way means that they are unimportant. Over the years, in post-independent India, the government of the day has enacted suitable legislation based on various Directive Principles, So, we can say that over the time, many of these principles have become legally enforceable also.
Our Directive Principles of State Policy are an influence of the Irish constitution.

Q.6.What do you understand by the term ‘renaissance’. Discuss.
Ans. The term ‘Renaissance’ literally means rebirth, and is, in a narrow sense, used to describe the revival of interest in the classical civilizations of Greece and Rome. This deeply influenced Europeans. The Renaissance, however, was not a mere revival of ancient learning. It was marked by a series of new developments in the fields of art, literature, religion, philosophy, science and politics.
This intellectual and cultural life of Europe for centuries had been dominated by the Catholic Church. The Renaissance undermined this domination. The revival of pre-Christian classical learning and of interest in the cultural achievements of ancient Greece and Rome was, in itself, an important factor undermining the domination of the Church. The Renaissance, of course, went beyond mere revival and gave rise to a new way of thinking.

Q.7.What do you understand by the term ‘social structure’?
Ans.The term social structure can be defined through following :-
a)Social structure is a patterned set of rules.
b)These rules and frameworks to be considered social structure must continue and endure over a time.
c)Since social structure is a set of rules which are made by human they are liable to change in the long run.
d)Social structures reflect some dimensions of interaction such as power, economic resources, prestige, values etc.
So, in the social field, the word structure refers to a different thing. It does not refer to a concrete reality like a building frame, for example, it is a frame nevertheless, a pattern of inter relationships that have been found enduring and long lasting. For example, the caste system is India is a fine example of a definite social structure, where the Brahmins are at the top enjoying a priestly rate, in the traditional sense, and the Shudras are at the bottom toiling over land etc.

Q.9.Discuss the nature of bharatnatyam as an art form.
Ans. Bharatnatyam is perhaps the oldest among the contemporary classical dance form of India. Its claim to antiquity tests not on its association with the “Natyashastra” as also on the overwhelming literary, sculptural and historical evidence of Bharatnatyam.
In the villages of Tamil Nadu Bharatnatyam continued as part of the presentation of the Bhagvata Mela tradition. However, there it was performed by men only. The efforts of E, Krishna Ayer and later of other pioneers, revived Bharatnatyam as a dance of classical repute. Subsequently, Rukmani Devi decided to study Bharatnatyam under the grand old master Meenakshi Sundaram Pillai and from Mylapura Gauri Amma. In 1936 she gave her first performance. This was the lighting of a new fire. The post-independence period was an era of revival and reconstruction. Institutions begun by Rukmani Devi, recitals performed by Balasarswati and disciples trained by Meenakshi Sundaram Pillai, such as Shanta Rao, all left a deep impact.

SCQ : Write short notes on any two in about 100 words each:
Q.13.(1) The Iron Age.
Ans.The Iron age :- Iron Age commenced at around 1200 B.C. Unlike copper and tin which are quite rare and hence expensive, iron is one of the commonest elements founding the earth’s crust (here it should not be taken to mean that iron was a commonly available metal at that time). In the beginning, it was however a rare metal. The extraction of iron from its ore follows more or less, the same technique as with the extraction of copper. The secret of its production was however kept closely guarded and it took several years for this knowledge to seep slowly, through a variety of sources, before it was universalized across several cultures.
13.(2)Denotified Tribes.

Ans. Denotified Tribes :– 1871 some tribes were noted as criminal in the criminal tribes. Act launched by the British. It bestowed on the police power to arrest them on suspicion. The act defined their identity more than 130 years ago and astonishingly not much has changed for them since despite the fact that five years after independence, the Criminal Tribal Act was repeated. The tribes were no longer to be identified as criminal. They were Denotified in 1952 and came to be known as Denotified tribes (DNTS).

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