IGNOU Free Solved Assignments Course Code: BPSE-212/EPS-12 Assignment Code: Asst/TMA/2019-20


Course Code: BPSE-212/EPS-12
Assignment Code: Asst/TMA/2019-20
Total Marks: 100
Answer questions in each category. Write the answers in your own words.

SECTION - I
(A) DCQ: Answer any two of the following in about 500 words each.

Q.1.Discuss the impact of globalization on poverty and economic inequality?
Ans. Impact of globalisation on poverty and economic inequality can be assessed as follows: - Scholars in India are deeply divided into two rival camps on this issue of impaction poverty and economic inequality. One group argue that unemployment and poverty have worsened following liberalisation and the other group suggesting that it is not so. The latter argues that either liberalisation has turned the slide or established the framework and conditions for reductions of unemployment and poverty. Here below are a few trends in this regard:
1)The incidence of poverty declined for all categories of workers over the first decade of liberalisation. However, the rate of decline of poverty rations was lowest for casual workers and it was highest for regular workers. As per the NSS data, 1997, poverty in India was around 37 (rural 38 and urban 34) percent. However, the 1980’s recorded a faster decline in rural poverty and decline slowed down considerably after the reforms. The share of self-employed workers came down from 61.4 percent in 1972-73 to 54.8 percent in 1993-94. There was increase in the proportion of casual labourer from 23.2 percent to 33 percent. There is a decline in the rural non-farm employment. Casualisation of labour got accentuated with liberalisation. Quality of employment has deteriorated on that account. Real wages for casual labourer increased in 1990’s but the growth has been very slow.
2) Although rural poverty decreased in most of the states (Except Assam), Bihar, Haryana and Punjab and U.P) in 1993-94 as compared to 1987-88, this decline was lower than during the period 1983 to 1987-1988 and 1977-78 to 1983. Urban poverty showed a higher rate of decline in nine out of 17 states during 1987-1988 to 1993-1994 as compared to the earlier periods.
3)In India child labour is one the decline. It declined from 23 percent in 1980 to 16 percent in 1997.
4)Educated unemployment was declining over time and there has been no sign of its increase after liberalisation. However, in the rural areas unemployment among graduates, both boys and girls, has increased during the decade of liberalisation.
Inequality between Rich and Poor States : Inequality between rich and poor states has increased during the years of liberalisation. However, it is difficult to bracket only of the states has rich and poor with respect to all the indicators. However, certain states such as Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamilnadu have succeeded in orienting themselves favorably towards the liberalizing and globalizing measures much more than other states. Some states such as Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Orissa have consistently remained lacking.
Basic Industries and Infrastructure: -
1)There has been a sharp decline in government capital investment from 5.5 percent to 3.6 percent of the GDP from 1990-91 to 1998-99. It has led to the relative neglect of the infrastructural sectors.
2)The government has not succeeded in ploughing FDIs towards the basic industries and infrastructural sector to any significant extent.
3)The prioritization of disinvestment during the second generation reforms unlikely to expand the manufacturing base either.
4)The private sector in India has not elicited much interest in making investment in the basic industries and infrastructures.
India may not be able to sustain, let alone improve, the kind of advantage that it has enjoyed in basic industries for long.
Investment in Social Sectors: There is declining expenditure in social sectors such as education, health and poverty alleviation in the liberalizing decade in India.
1)There expenditure of central and state governments on education on the percentage of GDP is found to have declined from 3.6 percent in 1992 to 3.4 percent in 1996-1997, showing a declining trend during this period. The worst affected has been seen the sector of higher education.
2)In the states too, the overall development expenditure has declined.
3)The allocation to health sector has declined from 1.7 percent in VII plan to 1 percent during 1997-98.
4)While the central government has taken on a larger share of social sector over the years, central assistance to states in these areas has declined. For instance, the share of education in centrally sponsored schemes was 12.1 percent in 1991. It declined to 8 percent in 1997-98.

Q.2.Write an essay on special provisions of the Indian constitution regarding the hill areas of north-east India.
Ans. The constitution of India provides special provisions for the hill areas of north-east India. According to Article, 244 of the constitution the VI Schedule lays down special provisions for the protection of the interest and cultural identities of the hill tribes of North. The most important provisions of the VI Schedule is creation of the Autonomous District Councils. While tribal of some of the North-Eastern States have the Autonomous District Councils, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and greater part of Mizoram do not have this. The Inner Lines Regulations exist for three states, i.e.; Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Nagaland, and North Cachar district of Assam.
The modern institutions of the Autonomous District Councils are elected bodies. They are controlled by the new generation which has benefitted from modern means of education. This placed the new elite in confrontation with the traditional elite who have considered it as an encroachment on their position. In fact, they have been demanding its abrogation. Also a section of the non-tribal have been seeking the removal of the Autonomous District Councils. They argue that the VI Schedule was introduced to protect the interests of the tribal while they would be constituents of Assam. But with the formation of separate states there was no clear demarcation of the jurisdiction of the ADCs, which result in overlapping of the jurisdiction of the ADCs, State legislature and the village councils. This causes inconvenience to the people. Since British days a system of Inner Line was drawn up under the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation, 1873. It prohibits the travel of outsiders into the area beyond the Inner Line without the governments permission. Aimed primarily at protecting the people of the covered area from the exploitation of the plainsmen, this also preserved the British control there and hindered the integration of the people of the hills and plains. The Inner Line is a subject of not controversy in North East India.


SECTION - II
(B)MCQ: Answer any four of the following in about 250 words each.
Q.5.Enumerate the factors which led to the emergence of new classed during the colonial rule in India. 
Ans. During colonial rule in India, there were certain factors, which led to the emergence of new social classes, they were the altering of the economic argument like introduction of new land relation, opening of Indian society for commercial exploitation by the capitalists world, introduction of a new administrative arrangement, a modern education system and the establishment of modern industries. The creation of private property in land by the permanent and Ryotwari settlement gave birth to the new classes in the form of large estate owners, the Zamindari and peasants proprietors. The class of tenants, and sub-tenants were born with the creation of the right to lease land. The right to private property in land and the right to employ labourer to work on land created classes like absentee landlords and agricultural labour. There also emerged a class of money lenders. Under the British rule production both industrial and agricultural became for the market. This created opportunity for people whose role was to import and export goods from and into India. These people came to be known as merchants. Even In Pre-British India there existed but it was very small in scale and volume. This class did not carry enough weight in society. The accumulation of profit in hands of the trading class, a section of Zamindari and the weather among the professional classes former the capital for the rise of textiles, mining and other industries owned by Indians. This led to the emergence of the native capitalist class. Thus completely new classes appeared, one the industrial capitalist who owned the mills, mines and other capitalist enterprises, two workers who worked in factories, mines, and railways and on plantations.

Q.6.Discuss the features of the Chipko movement.
Ans.Chipko movement was basically concerned with preservation and protection of forests. It was an environmental movement for maintaining the ecological balance in the sub-Himalayan region of Uttar Pradesh. Four districts of Uttarkashi, Chamoli, Tehri, and Pauri from Garhwal division and cover a total area of 27,000 sq.kms, and about 14 lakhs population. It is interesting to note that due to migratory nature of labour there are more females than males in this area. Males work in army and hence women are left behind to manage land, livestock and household. Chipko is also interpreted as feminist movement because of this. This movement originated in the Dasholi Gram Swarajya Mandal in Gopeshwar of Chamoli district.
The movement began on 24 April, 1973. There was a historical conflict of interests over forest and timber rights in this area between local villagers and sarvodaya workers on one hand and timber contractors and forest bureaucrats on the other. The contractors were able to exert more influence over forest bureaucracy and local politicians to corner the forest benefits. Previous to Chipko mobilization, stirrings against government’s forest policy and department had taken place in this region too. The forest department rejected Sarvodaya workers’ demand for 10 ash tree per annual for its farm tools workshop set up with the support from Khadi Gramudyog Commission. But it allotted 300 ash trees to the Simon Company for manufacturing sports like tennis rackets etc. The primacy thus was accorded to tennis rackets over the self-subsisting needs of the poor cultivator’s ploughs. The cutting of these 300 trees by company agent was started on March 1973. Sarvodaya workers and 100 other villagers marched from the nearby areas to Gopeshwar. As a result of this resistance by the villagers, the company men beat retreat. In order to appear the protest, the forest department showed readiness to concede one ash tree to sarvodaya workers, it they let the Simon Company cut trees of its original quota. The temptation was raised to two, three, five and ten ash trees of full quota but it was rejected. The Simon’s quota was cancelled but re-allotted Phata Forest in other part of the district. In June 1973, another local leader organised resistance and launched Chipko movement.

Q.8.Discuss the features of Dalit movement during 1950-1960.
Ans. Dalit Movement in the Post-Independence period in India can be divided into three phases, where the first phase is from 1950s to 1960s.
Implementation of the universal adult franchise, reservation in educational and political institutions, and in jobs for the Schedules Castes as per the provisions of the Constitutions enabled a large number of them to take advantage of these facilities in the period following independence. Along with these the state in India introduced several programmes for the betterment of the disadvantaged groups of the society, especially the Schedule Castes could not benefit from the measures introduced by the State due several practical reasons, yet these did help them wherever suitable conditions existed for them. Besides, the political parties, especially Congress party attempted to mobilize them as its vote bank. Despite the difficulties in availing of their right to vote in many parts of the country, politicization of the dalits took place to a considerable extent. Such process made them conscious of their rights. The policies and strategies of the congress helped it create its social base which consisted of Dalit as major social group. The politicization of dalits during this phase took a constituent of the social base of the political parties, especially the Congress. Meanwhile, there emerged the first generation of Dalit leadership borne after independence, which included educated middle class professional as well. This group became critical of dominant political parties and the cultural ethos, especially the Congress and the Hindu belief system. They started feeling that the Congress was using them as the vote bank; the high castes were holding the leadership of this party and not allowing dalits to get the leadership. On the cultural front they felt that the Hindu religion does not provide them a respectable place. Therefore, in order to live respectfully they should discard Hindu religion and convert to Buddhism. The advocates of this opinion were influenced by the ideas of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar. They formed Republican Party of India (RPI) based on the ideas and principles of Ambedkar. In the late 1950s and 1960s RPI launched a cultural and political movement in UP and Maharashtra for achieving political and cultural autonomy from the dominant formations. A large number of dalits got converted to Buddhism.

Q.11.Explain the limitations of the trade union movement in India.
Ans.There were some limitations of the Trade Union Movement in India. Only a small fraction of the working class is organised. Even in the organised sector a sizable chunk of workers do not participate in Trade Union Movement India economy is largely agriculture based. Small peasants and agricultural labour encounter the problems of seasonal unemployment and low income. They are forced to go to cities in search of employment. Most of these workers are illiterate and ignorant and under the grip of superstitions and they have a migratory character. A large section of the workers do not exhibit much interest in trade union movement because city life for them is a temporary condition. So, they do not realise the importance of unity among workers. Another major weakness of trade union is poor finance. This is the fact that working class in India is very small part of population but the main problem is the multiplicity of trade unions. The subscription rate by Indian workers is very less. This makes the Trade Unions dependent on external finance and influence. Yet another weakness of the trade union movement has been the dominance of leadership from outside. The main reason for this has been lack of education among the workers. Mostly leadership is provided by professional politicians. It is being increasingly felt that the working class movement should be led by persons from the ranks of the workers who are aware of the problems and difficulties encountered by the working class. Political leadership ignores the needs need and welfare of the workers and tries to use the organisation for the interest of the political party.

SECTION - III
(C) SCQ: Write short notes on any two of the following in about 50 words each.
Q.13.Leadership in the Constituent Assembly.
Ans. There were two broad types of leadership in the constituent Assembly: -
1)Political and
2)Technical.
Because of the predominance of the Congress Party the political leadership naturally visited in its leaders. The top of this leadership consisted of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Sadder Vallabhbhai Patel, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Dr. Rajendra Prasad Granville Austin calls the Nehru-Patel-Azad-Prasad team ‘the oligarchy’.

Q.15.The Bahujan Samaj Party.
Ans. The Bahujan Samaj Party was founded by Kanshi Ram on April 14, 1984. The party claims itself to be the party of the majority section or the Bahujan Samaj. The assumption behind this claim is that the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Backward Castes and minorities constitute 85% of India’s population. They constitute the majority or the Bahujan Samaj of India. The BSP argues that the minority high castes have been using the votes of the Bahujan Samaj to rule over them. Since, in democracy the majority should rule, the BSP strives to establish the regime of the Bahujan Samaj.

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