IGNOU SOLVED ASSIGNMENTS SUBJECT CODE:EPS-07 TMA/2019/2020


Subject Code: EPS-07
Assignment Code: Asst/TMA/2019-20
Total Marks: 100

Answer all questions in each category. Try to write the answer in your own words.
(A) DCQ: Answer the following in about 600 words each.
Q.1.Discuss the meaning of changing nature of International Relations (IR).
Ans.The context and nature of International Relations (IR) have undergone major changes after the Second World War. Traditionally, world politics was centered around Europe and relations among nations were largely conducted by officials of foreign offices in secrecy. The common man was hardly ever involved, and treaties were often kept secret. Today public opinion has begun to play an important role in the decision-making process in foreign offices, thus, changing completely the nature of international relations. Ambassadors, once briefed by their governments, were largely free to conduct relations according to the ground realities of the countries of their posting. Today, not only have nuclear weapons changed the nature of war and replaced erstwhile the balance of power by the balance of terror, but also the nature of diplomacy changed as well. We live in the jet age where the heads of State and government and their foreign ministers travel across the globe and personally establish contacts and conduct international relations. Before the First World War a traveler from India to Britain to spent about twenty days in the sea voyage. Today, it takes less than nine hours for a jet aircraft to fly from Delhi to London, telephones, fax machines, teleprinters and other electronic devices have brought all government leaders in direct contact. Hot line communications between Washington and Moscow, for example, keeps the top world leaders in constant touch. This has reduced the freedom of ambassadors who receive daily instructions from their governments.
Decolonisation has resulted in the emergence of a large number of Sovereign States. The former colonies of the European Powers, including India, have become important actors on the stage of international relations. They were once silent spectators. Today, they participate in the conduct of world politics. The disintegration of the Soviet Union has created fifteen members of the United Nations, instead of the previous three. Some of the very small countries like Nauru may have no power but they also have an equal voice in the General Assembly. Four very small countries viz. Liechknstein, San Marino, Monaco and Andorra were admitted to the U.N. during 1990-93. The total number of U.N. members has gone up from 51 in 1945 to 185 in 1997. Thus, international relations are now conducted by such a large number of new nation states. Besides, many non-state actors such as multinational corporations and transnational bodies like terrorist groups have been influencing international relations in a big way. With the collapse of the Soviet Union as a super power, the United States has emerged as the supreme monolithic power and can now dominate the international scene almost without any challenges. The Non-Alignment Movement (NAM) still exists but with the dismemberment of one of its founders (i.e. Yugoslavia) and the disappearance of rival power blocs, the role of the ‘Third World War’ has changed along with that of NAM.
Q.2.Discuss the emergence of USA and USSR as super power after World War II.
Ans. The concept of Super Power developed only after the Second World War when some of the erstwhile big powers were overtaken in respect of power (capacity to influence the minds and actions of other states) by two countries, namely the United States of America and Soviet Union. On the eve of the Second World War, British Empire, France, Italy and Japan were among the recognised big powers. When the War ended not only Germany but Italy and Japan were also defeated. As we have seen, Germany was occupied by four powers and Japan was ruined after the atom bombs attacks. The defeated countries became militarily weak politically insignificant and economically impoverished. Among the victors, Britain had become so weak that by 1947 it was unable to maintain her troops even in Greece and Turkey for their defense against communism. British Empire could not be sustained. Once India became independent in 1947, the process of decolonization was accelerated. Britain was still recognized as a big power and occupied a permanent seat in the U.N. Security Council but its strength had considerably diminished. France had been a victim of German occupation until a Second front was opened and it was liberated in August, 1944. Although France emerged victorious, and was given a permanent seat in the Security Council, yet for several years after the War, it was far from being a powerful nation. That left only two of the principal victors i.e. the United States and Soviet Union who gained in military power and political status. Thus, an important consequence of the Second World War was the emergence of these two victors as Super Powers. Even after Britain, France and China became nuclear powers they could not challenge the Super Power Status of US and USSR.
 (B) MCQ: Answer in about 300 words each.
Q.3.Explain the characteristics features of the states of the Third World. 
Ans. The Third World state has the following distinct features: -
1) It is an over developed state;
2) It enjoys autonomy from the dominant classes;
3) It protects the interests of the metropolitan bourgeoisie also.
An Over-developed State: - In the Western Capitalist countries the modern nation-state has emerged due to the internal dynasties of society. The raising capitalist class took the initiative to establish a nation-state.
In the Third World the motive force for change in the political institutions came from outside. During the colonial period the third world war dominated by the western capitalist countries. The colonial rulers has created political institutions in their own image to facilitate domination over the native classes and economic exploration of the colonies.
To perform these functions the colonial rulers have related an elaborated legal-institutional structure to control the colonies. The many and bureaucracy who named these institutions played a vital role in managing the affairs of the colonial rulers.
Autonomy: - The Western countries are dominated by a single well-formed dominant class. In all the western countries the capitalist class in the dominant class. The third world is marked by the existence of multiple dominant classes. The landlord class, that is, local bourgeoisie of the metropolis control of the third world. An alliance consisting of all these classes dominates the state. The alliance is called historic bloc. The historic bloc arises because the social formation in the third world consists of elements from both capitalist as well as pre-capitalist social relations. The capitalist class in weak and in capable of fighting against the pre-capitalist relations in society.
The capitalist class is weak because it exercises limited control over the economic activity. A large part of the economic production is controlled either by the metropolitan bourgeoisie or by the local landed gently. No class is enough strong to exercise control over the state.
Since there is no single dominant class, the state acquires the autonomy to regulate the relationship between different classes of the historic block. The third world state, by deploying vast economic resources to reproduce capitalist production process in the interest of local dominant classes and the bourgeoisie of the metropolis sustains its Autonomy.
Control of the Metropolis: - The third world state is subjected to control by extraneous forces. The under-developed nature of the economy and the nature of ruling elite/classes renders the state dependent on foreign aid and capital. The ruling elite by acting as mediators between the state and the external capital amass profits. This process does not help development, the gap between the ruled and the rulers and between the rich and the poor widens. It is a far-fetched to argue that the third of imperialist rulers. Independence from colonial domination has eliminated the scope for the bourgeoisie of the imperialist powers to exercise direct control over the third world state. However, it influences the third world state indirectly. The over-developed third world state by dissolving the national boundaries, creates, favourable conditions for the world market to penetrate into the third world. The state by facilitating the induction of technology and investment brings about the integration of the third world into the global market. The state, the ruling state, negotiates with the external world with diminishing power and ability to do so.
Q.4.Critically Examine the international situation on the eve of Gulf War.
Ans. International situation on the Eve of Gulf War appeared to favour Iraq. The Soviet Union which had been supplying most of the military requirements of Iraq was facing the crisis which eventually led to its disintegration. The United States had been sympathetic to Iraq during its war with Iran. Therefore, President Bush was perceived by Saddam to be friendly with him. He was unlikely to intervene in case Iraq decided to annex Kuwait. In May 1990 Saddam Hussain, however, had expressed a fear that after collapse of socialism in Eastern Europe, America might try to establish hegemony in the Middle East. He had also accused Kuwait and the UAE of over production of oil leading to fall in its international prices. He termed it a kind of war against Iraq ……”
At the end of the long war between Iran and Iraq, the latter was perceived to be a victor, although apparently the war had resulted in the Stalemate. Iraq had failed to establish its hegemony in the entire gulf region, yet it was clearly one of the two major regional powers. Iraq possessed a million-man army, advanced Soviet tanks and planes and stockpile of chemical and biological weapons. It had a formidable military arsenal. However, Iraq had to repay large sums of money that it had borrowed from neighbouring Arab countries during Gulf War-I (Iran-Iraq War, 1980-88). Iraq’s economy needed a “massive infusion of funds for reconstruction”. Besides, Opined Brecher, “it had an insatiable desire for more advanced weapons, including a nuclear capability.”
The cold war had just ended. Iraq’s principal “patron and arms supplier” the U.S.S.R. was passing through several internal conflicts and crisis and war on the verge of collapse. President Saddam did not expect only anti-Iraq action from the United States. The situation in second half of 1990 was, thus, “ripe for extracting economic and territorial concessions from Kuwait and if necessary, using force to annex Kuwait as Iraq’s long coveted 19th province.”Analyzing the events leading to Gulf War, Michael Brecher suggests that there was abundant evidence to show that the crisis was initiated by Iraq and directed against Kuwait. The prelude began several months before the Iraqi military action against Kuwait. The first anniversary meeting of Arab Cooperation Council (ACC) was held on February 24, 1990. It was attended by Egypt, Iraq, Jordan and Yemen. In this meeting held at Amman, President Saddam Hussain warned that in view of impending collapse of Soviet Bloc, the Arabs had to be careful to resist US attempts to establish hegemony in the West Asian region. He also expressed displeasure at the behaviour of lesser oil producing states of the Gulf. As mentioned earlier, Saddam blamed Kuwait and the UAE for violation of OPEC production quotas. He said on May 30, 1990 that this was a kind of war against Iraq. Thus, by the end of May 1990, president Hussain appeared determined to acquire Kuwait and achieve increased oil benefits in the bargain.
Q.5.Examine the internal and external factors that led to the collapse of Soviet Union.
Ans.The events of 1989, which culminated in the disintegration or collapse of Socialist bloc, have been described as “an earth quake”. There are some internal and external factors or causes that led to the collapse of Soviet Union or Socialist bloc,which are given below:-
a) Historical Factor: -Although the final disintegration of the Socialist bloc took a few months in the latter half of 1989, the basic reasons for the collapse can be traced to the period when, more than forty years earlier, communist rule was imposed in these countries during Stalin’s time. This fact of forcible imposition of a system of government and an ideology, and the lack of democratic means in this had alienated the citizens of these countries and the feeling grew stronger with the passage of time.
b) Cultural:- The countries of the socialist block or Soviet Union could neither compete in the new fields of consumer culture, the third industrial evolution and the speed of information technology, nor could they constitute an alternative block which could insulate itself from the capitalist world as was possible at one time in history when the “iron curtain” and descended across Europe after World War II. They simply legged behind, condemned to only copy from the west.
c)Political:- The discontent generated by this failure led to widespread discrediting of the ruling communist parties and its leaders which in turn led an erosion of their legitimacy to rule. The fact that, historically, these regimes had been imposed forcibly during the post World War II period, and that they had not been democratically elected, formed the basis for the simmering discontent among people.
d)Economic:- It has been pointed out that the most fundamental and all –compassing reason was the failure of these countries to live on to their promise of “catching up with and overtaking capitalism” in economic and political terms. It was multifaceted failure in which the most crucial aspect was a pervasive economic failure. Not only were these countries unable to catch up with the West in narrow, quantitative terms such as industrial output, technological changes and food production, but also, in more general terms were unable to raise standards of living and meet the raising popular expectations especially in the newly arisen consumerism and popular culture where contrast with the capitalist west became more pronounced.
External reasons
a)Role of the USSR:- The most significant of the external factors was the role and politics of the erstwhile USSR. More than six years after the disintegration of the Socialist bloc and five years after the breakup of Soviet Union, it is possible to state that Gorbachev’s policies of Glasnost and Perestroika in the Soviet Union made the upheavals in East Europe both possible and successful.
b)Role of the West:- Yet another important international factor was the role of the Western Capitalist countries. As the people in Easter began to get more and more organised in their demand for systematic reform, greater democracy.
c)Demonstration Effect:- There was also what one may call the demonstration effect which can be considered as external factor. The success which these movements of democracy and reform were achieving in the different countries had a greatly encouraging effect on other similar movements and protests of the Socialist bloc and each victory took the entire process a step further towards the eventual disintegration of the Socialist bloc.
Q.6.Arms race and the nuclear threat.
Ans.The nuclear arms race between the Super Powers began initially in the pre-second world war period between the Germans and the Allied Powers. It was in the context of this conflict prior to the Second World War that in 1938, at the Kaiser William Institute in Germany. Otto Hann and Dr. Fritz Steersman first split the atom. Wise Meitner and Otto Hann later declared this successful splitting of the atom announcing to a nuclear fission. It was a matter of coincidence that at this juncture in history, the greatest minds working on the ‘atomic problem’ were Jews and that too German Hitler’s rapid anti-Semitism during the period sent most of these great minds in Germany rushing to the USA where they were welcomed. These fleeing scientists informed the American military who were closely monitoring events in Europe. There was widespread apprehension that Germany might be the first to produce the nuclear bomb as the knowledge of splitting the atom was already available to it. Albert Einstein too was one of the refugees and he knew fully significance of this discovery, for it warned the President of the United States about it.
The Manhattan Project:- The Americans under President Roosevelt were fully aware of the international implications and so began the race to build the bomb first. Roosevelt commissioned what was the top secret “Manhattan Project’, the biggest scientific effort was made costing two billion dollars under Maj. Leslie Groves to construct the atomic bomb in are cord time. Robert Oppenheiner, Enrico Femi, Herbert York, Edward Teller, Hans Beth and a host of other scientific luminaries were involved in the production of the first three nuclear bombs.
The interesting aspect of this bomb construction was that though the initial enemy was Germany, slowly the real enemy for whom the bomb was constructed turned out to be Soviet Union. In fact, Gen Leslie Groves stated that he had no illusions that Soviets were the real enemy. The fact is critical to an understanding of the post 1945 world.
Arms race in the Post War Period:- Germany, the first nation with whom the U.S. engaged in the N-Arms race surrendered in May 1945 and all its nuclear facilities were destroyed, thus ending the first phase of an incipient nuclear arms race. Despite this arms race had to continue once the weapons had been built. A new enemy across the horizon was discovered communist Soviet Union. The fear of communism was ideologically fueling the furious pace of the Atom Bomb construction. In that sense the emerging US military-industrial complex was not wrong.
Communist USSR was definitely the biggest power confronting USA and its Western allies once Germany collapsed. The world was definitely getting divided into two camps, the capitalist and the socialist and Europe including Germany was its first victims. The Allies could not do anything about it. Something had to be found, a new ultimate weapon which could stop and possibly destroy the march of communism.That something designed initially for fascist Germany and used for experimentation in Japan was to be probably used later against the Socialist Soviet Union. This was the underlying ideological war cry in the American establishment and the subtle reason for continuing the arms race into the post-second World War area.
 (C) SCQ: Write short notes on the following in about 100 words each.
Q. 7. Sustainable development and the environment.
Ans. Sustainable development is a new concept of development, which provider opportunity for all the people of the world without depleting the world’s finite natural resources and environment improving living standards and levels of health, education and opportunity are the important dimensions of economic development. However, the measure of economic development does not adequately reflect environmental degradation and the consumption of natural resources damaged by economic growth. In fact, it is neither possible nor desirable to give monetary values on all types of environmental damages. Nonetheless, it is desirable to know how much environmental quality is being up in the name of environmental protection. The World Development Report, 1992 argues that too much of environmental quality is being given up and too much of economic growth may be given up in the future to reap the benefits of both economic development and environment. In other words, raising economic growth combined with sound environmental management policies can be used for tackling both environment and developmental problems.
Q. 8. Dimensions of ethno-national conflicts. 
Ans. Ethno-national conflicts have the following dimensions: -
a) Ethnic Domination: - To begin with, ethnic domination is a common dimensions of the ethnic-national conflict. It represents the internet demand and desire of the particular ethnic group to acquire and retain to its control or domination over other ethnic groups.
b) Ethnic Secession: - if any particular ethnic group feels that its collective interest cannot be promoted outside the territories of the existing state, then it demands secession from the state. In this case, the principle of self-determination is claimed by the ethnic group wishing to secede.
c) Demand for Autonomy: - Sometimes the ethnic groups may simply demand more autonomy within the boundaries of the state.
d) Peaceful Ethnic Self-determination: - It is also seen that some ethno-national conflicts fought democratically, in such cases, there is a political dialogue and not an armed conflicts on the basis of referendum different ethnic groups decide whether to stay in the same territory or to secede.
e) Ethnic Cleansing: - Ethnic cleansing is the most dreaded dimension of ethno-national conflict. It is a ‘cleaning operation’ carried out by the ethnic group of the other ethnic groups.


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