Course Code: EPS-03
Assignment Code: Asst/TMA/2019-20
Total Marks: 100
Answer all questions. Try to answer in your own words.
(A)DCQ:Answer the following in about 500 words each. 
Q.1.Discuss the British colonial intervention in India’s economy in the early 20th century. 
Ans. British colonialism produced various impact on different areas of Indian life and people. British colonial intervention in India’s economy in the early twentieth century can be seen in different units like agriculture, trade and industry.
Impact on Agriculture:-
The British brought about important transformation in India’s agricultural economy but this was not with a view to improving Indian agriculture but rather to obtain for themselves in the form of land revenue, all surplus available in agriculture and to force Indian agriculture to play its assigned role in a colonial economy. Old relationships and institutions were destroyed and new ones were born. But these new features did not represent a change towards modernization or its movement in the right direction.
The British produced two major land revenue and terminal systems. One was the Zamindari system, (Later a modified version of the same Zamindari system was introduced in North India under the name of the Mahalwari System. The other was the Ryotwari system.
Whatever the name of the system, it was the present cultivators who suffered. They were forced to pay very high rents and for all practical purposes functioned as tenants-at-will. The greatest evil that arose out of British policies with regard to Indian agricultural economy was the emergence of the money lender as an influential economic and political force in the country. Because of the high revenue rules or rates demanded and the rigid manner of collection, the peasant cultivator had often to borrow money to pay taxes. The impact of British rules thus lead to the evolution of a new structure of agrarian relations that was extremely regressive. The new system did not at all permit the development of agriculture. New social classes appeared at the top as well as at the bottom of the social scale. The most unfortunate result of all this was that absolutely no effort was made either to improve agricultural practices or develop them along modern lines for increased production. The result was prolonged stagnation in agricultural production. Agricultural statistics as available only for the 20th century, and here the picture was quite dismal. While overall agricultural production per head fell, by 14 percent between 1901 and 1939, the fall in the per capita production of good grains was over 24 per cent. Most of this decline occurred after 1913.
Impact on trade and agriculture:-
As with agriculture, the British government controlled trade and industry purely with a view to faster British interests. India, no doubt, underwent a commercial revolution, which integrated ti with the world market, but she was forced to occupy a subordinate position. Foreign trade took big strides forward specially after 1858 and Rs. 213 crores in 1899. It reached a peak of Rs. 758 crores in 1924. But this growth did not represent a positive feature in Indian economy nor did it contribute to the welfare of the Indian people, because it was used as the chief instrument through which the Indian economy was made colonial and dependent on world capitalism. The country was flooded with the manufactured goods from Britain and forced to produce and export the raw materials Britain and other foreign countries needed.
Last but not the least, the foreign trade affected the internal distribution of income adversely. The British policy only helped to transfer resources from peasants and craftsmen to merchants, money lenders and foreign capitalists.
A significant feature of India’s foreign trade during early twentieth century was the constant excess of exports over imports. These exports did not represent the future claims of India on foreign countries, but the drain of India’s wealth and resources. One of the most important consequences of British rule was the progressive decline and destruction of urban and rural handicraft industries. Not only did India lose its foreign markets in Asia and Europe, but even the Indian market was flooded with cheap machine-made goods produced on a mass scale. The collapse of indigenous handicrafts followed.
The run of indigenous industries and the absence of avenue of employment forced millions of craftsmen to crowd into agriculture. Thus, the pressure of population on land increased. Thus it is seen that industrial development in India till 1947 was slow and stunted and did not at all present in industrial revolution or even the initiation of one.
Q.2.Examine the circumstances leading to the social reform movement in the 20th century. 
Ans.The Indian Social Reform movement was largely, though not exclusively a product of the western impact on Indian Society. The Indian Society in the eighteen century was under the influence of several caste practices. Taboo on inter-dining and marriage and notion of pollution were some of them. The lot of the lower castes was the worst. They were treated as untouchables and required to stay in segregated localities since even their shadow was deemed to pollute a high caste Hindu. They were not allowed to use village wells of were denied education. The orthodox considered these castes rigidities and taboos as diversely ordained and denigrated or condemned all at tempts at change or progress.
Next to the lot of lower castes, the position of women was particularly hard in 18th century India. Child marriage was widely prevalent and it was customary to marry young boys between ten and sixteen to young girls between six and ten. Since child mortality was high in those days, many young girls became widows even before reaching at the age of physical maturity. These young widows were not allowed to many and their plight was indeed most miserable. On the other hand, there was no bar on a widower and he was even allowed to have many wives. Poly gamy was Widespread among the high caste Hindus (the Kulin Brahmins of Bengal in particular) as well as Muslims. Purdah was a way of life with both Hindu and Muslim women. They were generally never allowed to come outside their chambers and could not show their uncovered faces to the outside world. In short, Indian society was groaning under the tyranny of inhuman customs and traditions. The people had lost all feelings of humanity and justice. What was worse, the creative spirit of the people was being under mind.
The social reform movement of the nineteenth century was partly a response to the western impact on the traditional society and to come to terms with the colonial challenge posed by the colonial presence. Since the western impact was first felt in Bengal, the western educated Bengalis were the first to raise the banner of reform.
(B)MCQ:Answer the following in about 250 words each. 
Q.3.Describe the distinctive characteristics of militant nationalism.
Ans.Militant Nationalism is a phase of Nationalism. While nationalism is itself a very strong feeling and sentiment, militant nationalism is an even more vehement, assertive and aggressive feeling. The distinctive characteristics of militant nationalism are described below:-
1)There can be two ways of winning freedom for subject country. One is to impress upon the rulers that freedom is the birth right of the people and should be granted to them gracefully and this is liberal method but the other way is to attack the rulers and the government and bring their domination to an end, as it is futile to expect that colonial rulers will listen to reason and agree to surrender the grains and advantages of an empire. This is militant nationalism.
2)The militant nationalist’s attitude was entirely different from liberals. To them, the alien government was a total evil,. It was the cause of political, economic, cultural and spiritual ruin in the country. The foreign ruler could never be trusted to vacate the country that he has gained by conquest. Persuasion, therefore, was futile; more forceful methods must be used and the moderates, according to them were lacking in will and a sense of urgency.
3)The difference between the moderates and the militant nationalist was radical, according to Lala Lajpat Rai. It was not one of the speed, nor of method, but of fundamental principles.
Q.4.Elaborate upon the salient features of Bhagat Singh’s ideology.
Ans.Socialist thought had definitely influence Bhagat Singh’s thinking. The writings of Marx Lenin, Trotsky and Many other socialist writers impressed his ideological convictions greatly. The salient features of Bhagat Singh’s ideology are described here :–
The Defense of Atheism: Bhagat Singh’s political thought finds its expression in three of his writings as well as numerous statements he made during trial. In an interesting article captioned, “Why I am an Atheist” he tried to explained away his differences with other revolutionaries who became devout and God-fearing in their prison life. Tracing his own evolution from theism to atheism, Bhagat sing tells us how he started questioning the existence of god in his college days.
Bhagat sing considered criticism and independent thinking as the ‘two indispensible qualities of the revolutionary.” For him no man is so great as to be above criticism. He considered it as a mark of servile mentality. He was prepared to concede the use of faith and belief as a way of explaining away the environment. Bhagat Singh’s argument against all faiths is that they have lost the probing and experimental attitudes which had been the hallmark of those original thinkers. It is the reason and reason alone which should be made a test to find out what is worthwhile to be preserved a religion. He found out that faith in God as Almighty, Omnipresent, Omniscient and Omnipotent is essentially an irrational proof or belief. To Bhagat Singh, the belief in God was not necessarily the invention of those who wanted to keep the people under their subjection by preaching the existence of a supreme being and then claiming an authority and sanction from him for their privileged positions. However, he accepted the argument that religion has essentially a reactionary role to play as it has always sided with tyrannical and exploiting institutions, men and classes.
om the others of his kind.
Q.5.What was the Birsa Munda revolt (1895-1901)? Explain.
Ans. Birsa Munda Revolt was one of the major tribal India movement. The movement of Birsa Munda (1895-1901) is the most popular movement of the Munda tribes of Singhbhum and Ranchi districts of the Chota Nagpur region of Bihar. This movement was like other tribal movements, directs against the outsiders dikus-land-lords; traders, merchants and government officers. These classes were created by the British. Before the introduction of the British policies in the areas inhabited by Oaron and Munda, their traditional land and social systems had existed. Their land
system was known as ‘Khuntkari System’. The tribal’s enjoys customary rights over their land.
The system was marked by the absence of class of landlords. The tribal’s worked on their land and paid tributes to their chiefs. By 1874, the British replaced the traditional Khuntkari system by Zamindari system. The introduction of Zamindari system, created classes of landlords and riots (tenants). The tribal’s now had to pay rent to landlords and failure to do so resulted in their eviction, from land. Following the monetization of economy the tribal’s had to depend on cash for paying the rent and for meeting their daily needs. But landlords, money-lenders, government officers exploited them, collaborating with each other. So , the Mundas held the dikus and the missionaries responsible for their miseries. Therefore, they developed feelings of hatred against the dikus. They felt that their miseries could be ended only by removing the outsiders and establishing their independent raj. This movement was led by Birsa Munda.

Q.6. Examine Swami Vivekananda’s philosophy and concept of freedom.
Ans. Swami Vivekananda was one of the most influential religious thinkers of nineteenth century. His writing basically dealt with the freedom of man, its nature, norms, scope and the idea of equating freedom with equality. According to Vivekananda, the Universe was an illusory expression of the Brahma, the creator, Maya or illusion contained virtues such as knowledge, creativity and instinctive desires which in fact was the visible image of the creator. ‘Brahma’ had the immense power to the universe together and its influence was felt in each and every object of its creation. The difference between Brahma and his creations was the finitude of virtues in its material forms. The reference here is to mankind at large. What separated man from his creator was the kind of virtues
ingrained in him. Each person had a different combination of unequal development of virtues. In contrast, the relationship was so complete and perfect in ‘Brahma’ that no difference could be discerned between the triple virtues of knowledge, creativity and instinctive desires and those which lay beyond virtues. Every person with his dominant virtue therefore formed a part of the larger whole, that is, the all encompassing, all comprehensive totality, in the form of ‘Brahma’. Hence, the goal of an individual could only find its true expression in the entire humanity. Vivekananda called the attaining of the ‘Brahma-ness’ by man, the state of ‘moksha’.On the concept of freedom,Vivekananda added that man was born free but life constrained his natural freedom making him an atomized, isolated, ‘individual’ who was solely interested in the unstrained pursuit of his desires and
aims which would sooner or later bring him into conflict with the equivalent freedom of another, thus cancelling each other out. While the virtues of individuality were essential for the development of his spiritual self.Vivekananda felt that it was possible for both individuality and sociality to go together so that when man’s individuality was restrained by his built-in sociality it would provoke resistance from the others of his kind.

(C)SCQ: Answer the following in about 100 words each. 
Q.7.Write a note on the Gandhian Concept of Swaraj. 
Ans.The Swaraj of Gandhi’s conception was not a conception of “Englishtan”, i.e. English rule without the Englishmen. His conception of true Swaraj and true civilization, he clarified, was deprived, not from the works of such modernist thinkers as Spencer, Mill or Adam Smith, but from the perennial wisdom of Indian thought and from such non-modernist western thinkers as Tolstoy, Ruskin and Thoreau. From the tradition of Indian thought, Gandhi derived the cognitive evaluative principles of Satya (truth) and Ahimsa (non-violence or love towards others), which he says should inform our political, economic scientific and technological activities. According to Gandhi, when our conduct is informed and governed by Satya and Ahimsa, it becomes dharmic conduct, which would respect the unity of life and exclude all exploitation.
Q.8.Subhash Chandra Bose’s idea of History?
Ans. Subash Chandra Bose interpreted Indian history and asserted that it has to be recorded in decades or in centuries but in the thousands. India has passed through various vicissitudes of fortune. Bose summaries his readings of Indian history as follows:-
1)A period of rise has been followed by a period of decline to be followed again by a upheaval.
2)The decline is the result chiefly of physical and intellectual fatigue.
3)Progress and fresh consolidation has been brought about by an influx of new ideas and sometimes an infusion of fresh blood.
4)Every new epoch has been heralded by people possessing greater intellectual power and superior military skill.
5)Throughout Indian history all foreign elements have always been gradually absorbed by Indian society. The British are the first and only exception to this.
6)In spite of change in the central government, the people have all along been accustomed to a large measure of the real liberty.


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