IGNOU Free Solved Assignment - EPS-08 (2019-2020) English medium

Contact Name: Amrit Sah
Contact No:9085652868,8638447739
Course Code: EPS-08
Assignment Code: Asst/TMA/2019-20
Total Marks: 100
Answer all questions in each category. Try to write the answer in your own words.
(A)DCQ:Answer in about 600 words each. 
Q.1.Explain the key resources and their management responsible for the development of Australia. 
Ans. Australia is endowed with varied natural resources. The natural resources found here and their management is behind the development of the country. The key resources of Australian resources are given below: -
1)Agriculture:- The evolution of Australian agriculture has been determined by interacting factors such as the opening up of new lands, the development of transport facilities and profitable markets and technical and scientific achievements.
2)Forests and Grasslands:- Eucalyptus is the most common tree in Australia. These are evergreen, and are commonly known as ‘guess trees’. Some are very high, while others are not. Some of the varieties such as Jarrah and Karri are valuable for their timber. Wattle is another common tree. It is tall and bears golden flowers in summer.Wild life – Most of the animals in Australia are MARSUPIALS. These animals have a paunch like near the stomach in which they can carry their young ones. The Kangaroo and wallaby are two such animals. The Kangaroo lives on grass and leaves, and has become symbolic of Australia. Koala is another animal of this category.
3)Minerals:- Mining, as defines in the 1993 edition of Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), broadly relates to the extraction of minerals occurring naturally as solids such as coal and ores; liquids such as crude petroleum, or grass such as natural gas. First stage processing of minerals and mineral extracts, while closely related to the mining industry, is included as part of the manufacturing industry. The mining industry contributed 18,668 million Australian Dollars or 4% of Australia’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 1995-96.
4)Industry:- Australia’s economic development has been one of the contrast and change. In the early years of the settlement, between 1788 and 1820, there was little scope for industrial or commercial enterprise. The government, as both main producer and main consumer, established workshops in order to produce the basic necessities of life – flour, salt, bread, candles, leather and leather articles, blacksmith’s products, tools and domestic items.
5)Manufacturing:- Manufacturing broadly relates to the Physical or Chemical transformation of materials or components into new products, whether the work is performed by power-driven machinery or by hand.The manufacturing industry is an important sector of the Australian economy, contributing about thirteen percent of Australia’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and about 13% of employment. However, despite significant increases in the value of the manufacturing industry’s gross product (increasing by about 16% over the past ten years), the industry’s share of Australian GDP has fallen over the past 20 years from around 18% to its current 13% status.
6)Sheep and Cattle Rearing:- Australia has the largest number of sheep in the world. They are neared mainly for wool. They can live on scanty grass and even on salt bush. The best sheep rearing area is between the rivers Murray and Darling. Merion sheep which produces the best wool is a very important breed for Australia. In Australia sheep rearing is done on very large farms, known as sheep stations. Every sheep station is like a self-contained village. It may be spread over several kilometers. It has modern facilities including windmills to pump water from the mills. The shearing season is the busiest time. Expert teams of shearers go from station to station. Ninety percent of Australian wool is exported.Australia, cattle are reared partly for dairy products milk, cheese and butter, and partly for meat. The finest beef-producing cattle is reared on the grasslands of Queens-land and Northern territory. Most of the milk is made into butter and cheese in cooperative factories.
Q.2.Explain the various features which contributed to the upsurge of Land Rights Movement in Australia. 
Ans.The dominant factor in the life of the aborigines in contemporary Australia is the influence of European culture. The issue of aboriginal Land Rights has become a major factor over the last few years and has met with varying degrees of support and opposition. The various features which contributed to the upsurge of Land Rights Movement in Australia are given below:-
a)Emergence of the Aboriginal Concept of Law:-The problem of Land Rights had been raised well over a century ago, but the overall attitude towards the Aboriginal people at that time greatly hindered any real support for its cause. Many prominent Analysts of aboriginal affairs believed that the dispossession of the aborigines from their land laid the basis for their continued poverty and to reverse this situation the aborigines should be given access to the remaining areas not alienated to the private interests of European citizens. Although insufficient attention has given to the economic and social implications of these demands the popular loans of this claim had been met with considerable aboriginal enthusiasm and had formed the basis for (much political agitation in the 1970s. In the late 1960s, the aborigines stepped up their campaign for indigenous land right through protest, marches, demonstration, banners and posters. The protests increased in the early 1970s.
b)Freedom to practice customs and the effects of dispossession:- Prior to the arrival of the Europeans in the late 18th century the aborigines occupied all of Australia. As aboriginal groups were associated with a particular area it was not common for them to move across boundaries except in extreme circumstances caused by drought, fire or flood. In such cases they adhered to strict rules of upholding their responsibility towards the land with a great sense of dignity and honour. They believed in community ownership of land. Each group fulfilled rites and ritual celebrations pertaining to their particular spirit and it was through these rites that the individual dignity of each person was recognised.
c)Recent history of land rights struggle:- Aboriginal people have ever time resisted dispossession and have fought to regain rights to their lands. However the rights of the Australian aborigines improved after World War II. Education was provided and political agitation for land rights began. Fairly recent changes in Australian Law have altered the situation quite drastically. In 1967, the aboriginal people were granted full citizenship rights. Along with this new title came the rights entitled to it. These rights have allowed the aborigines to win many court battles and get back their land that was owned by European farmers.
d)South Australia the First Land rights legislation:- The State of South Australia implemented Land Rights Legislation in the 1970s and around 20% of the state’s land is presently under aboriginal control. Several other states also passed land rights acts in the 1980s and early 1990s. In 1998 there were more than 150 aboriginal land runs councils involved in the administering and managing of the aboriginal lands and land rights processes.
e)Arguments against land rights:- Many Australians find it difficult to comprehend the problems faced by the aboriginal people and few see them as contributing to a desperate situation. Most do not understand the cultural and historical background and find it hard to sympathize with the aboriginal cause. Many Australians argue that the aborigines have received a lot from the Government and that they are given funding for things that the white population has to work for to achieve, such as free medical care, schooling etc. some argue that the Government has encouraged laziness among the aborigines which has contributed to the development of hand out mentality, demanding rights and privileges simply because they are aborigines.
f)Concept of restitution:- The attitudes and activities which held the aborigines in a marginal and deprived condition continue to persist. Although restitution is required, the problem of restitution and compensation is not a simple one. Part of the complexity of the problem is in knowing the impossibility of restoration and therefore the need for restitution. It is obvious that land that has been used and changes by Industralisation and agriculture for 200 years cannot be totally restored.

(B) MCQ: Answer in about 300 words each. 
Q.3.Examine the working of federalism in Australia. 
Ans.During nearly one hundred years of its existence, the Constitution of Australia has passed through various situations like the two world wars, the great depression, industrial upheaval, economic devastation and urbanization. Against this background, federalism in Australia has not remained static. Federal balance has changed. The federal balance has been titled towards the common-wealth Government. Its powers have been extended to cover large spheres of jurisdiction, as it has happened in case of all old and matured federations of this period. There is no question that the constitutional division of powers between the centre and the states in Australia has remained intact. During these years, under these circumstances, the interpretation of the constitution by the High Court, referendum and the constant increase of the total governmental powers have brought changes in the federal divisions of powers as provided in the 1990 constitution and thereby a new federal balance has been created and maintained.
Factors bringing about changes:- It is true that Australian Constitution is rigid and very few amendments in rate cases have changed the Common Wealth State relationship. Any proposed to increase the power of the Common Wealth did not get favourable support in the referendum because of the prevailing notion that too much authority should not be given to the common wealth, rather its wings should be clipped. The electors of Australia have shown little desire to change the formal shape of the federal structure.
Q.4.Examine the changing nature of party system and electoral politics in Australia. 
Ans.Party System and its changing nature in Australia:- Although Australia’s party system is generally taken to be a two party affair, it should be mentioned that there are divergent views on it. This basically stems from the differing criteria being deployed for classification of the country’s party system. Thus, for instance, if one uses the criterion of legislative representation, the number of parties comes to fine, viz, Labour, Liberal, National, Democratic Liberal party and the Australian Democrats.
Australia’s minor political parties: - Australia’s minor political parties in the post-war period can be classified in to four main types:-
(1) Doctrinal minor parties (2) Issue parties, (3) Secessionist/fragment parties and (4) Protest parties. Regarding doctrinal outfits, examples are the various communist parties, the National socialist party (parties) and the racist parties. These types are marked by a tendency towards persistent effects at retaining their presence in the electoral party system, irrespective of political success or failure. Christian parties – Call to Australia’s/Australian Family Movement and Christian Democrat party – also fall in the category of doctrinal minor parties.
Coming to issue parties, there are names such as Defense of Government Schools (DOGS) and the Nuclear Disarmament Party. As for the protest parties, these are of comparatively recent origin. They are generally based on a reaction to a specific economic, social, or even religious trend or event.
A federal party system:- Federalism is an intrinsic feature of Australian politics.Since 1901, Australia’s history has been full of debates and discussion on the subject. In fact, federalism and the party system in Australia are deeply related. The raise of major political parties in the colonies was a crucial factor that made it necessary for a federal rather than a unitary system to emerge in the country.
Changing nature of Electoral Politics in Australia:- In general, the majority of citizens usually vote for major party nominees rather than for independent or minor party candidates.
Party Support Patterns:- In Australia, the political pendulum has largely swung on the side of non-Labour. From 1910 onwards, the history of party government formation at the national level has been one of short-term labour governments followed by long lasting non-labour governments.
The issue of a national vote:-The consistent patterns of electoral support enjoyed by major political parties of Australia suggest that each of the leading political outfits in the country enjoys a national vote and that, this is more or less unchanging.
Voting behaviour in the post-war period:-In Australia, the first national survey of voting behaviour was carried out by Aitkin in 1967 and 1969 and his second one in 1979.
Q.5.Examine the evolution of Australia’s foreign policy.
Ans.Australia’s geographical location has guided its foreign policy from the very beginning. It is located in a part of the globe that has witnessed dramatic changes and great turbulence. Australia, it must be emphasized, has always felt secure only as part of large entity. Thus, it was aligned first with its former colonial master Britain and later with the USA. In the pre-war era, if the British Empire was threatened, Australia felt threatened too; and it took part in nearly all the British wars including the two world Wars. The cultural and ethnic difference of the people inhabiting its neighbourhood has only added to Australia’s feeling vulnerability, and it has always perceived threats, sometimes genuine and sometimes imaginary. Post-War Australian foreign policy consequently was dominated by the need to prevent states that were potentially threatening from gaining “access’ to the region.
Towards a more Independent Foreign Policy:-Australia’s foreign policy underwent a major change during Gough Whitlam Prime Minister Ship (1972 –75).Till 1972, the liberal party had rules Australia for 23 years. Thereafter, when the labour party under Whitman came to power. Australia was put on the path of independent thinking in pursuit of certain foreign policy objectives-namely, creating a regional role for Australia within the Australia US relations. One of the important political decisions taken by Whitlam was to remove racial discrimination from immigration procedures (non-European immigration had begun in 1967), thus enabling Asian immigration to Australia. During Whitlam’s administration recognition was given to China, North Vietnam, East Germany and North Korea, the Australian commitment to war in Vietnam was withdrawn; and the US was openly criticized for bombing North Vietnam. Whitlam stressed the importance of relations with friendly Asian countries by visiting them, including India, which no Australian Prime Minister had visited since 1959. Thus, his main emphasis was on a more independent foreign policy that did not always defer to the US. A more active role for Australia was thus established in Asia. However, the basic foreign policy principles remained the same.
Foreign Policy in the 1990s:-The labour government under the new leadership of Paul Keating (1991-96) with Gareth Evans as Foreign Minister touched new heights in its engagement with Asia Pacific. It was more outward looking than before with emphasis on Japan, China and India.

Q.6.Explain the Australian engagement into the global economy. 
Ans.Australia is a country with a large land area and a small, rich developed country. Australia was initially a colony which turned into a major exporter of an agriculture and mineral products in the 1840s and 1850s. the distribution of wealth and income in Australia is according to world standards.
Australia’s share of post-war global trade slipped from 2.5 percent of the total to about 1.1 percent. Its position in the list of principal exporting countries also dropped from 12 to 23 between 1978 and 1983.Australia in the second half of the 1980s became the source of the major international economic diplomatic initiative. These were supportive of reform in the multilateral trading system through its leadership of the Cairns Group of agricultural traders in the Urug way Round of trade negotiations and a commitment to building regional economic cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region through its APEC initiative. Since World War II, Australia experienced a rate of economic growth of 3.1 percent per annum.The Australian economy has undergone remarkable transformation from the former years of high industry protection and inward looking domestic economy. In the mid 1980s Australia opted for free international trade. Australia is now one of the least protected economies in the OECD. Earlier Australian economy depended on it pre dominant mineral and agricultural exports. Now it exports manufactured goods and services becoming internationally competitive and export oriented.Traditionally, Australia was a net private capital importer but since a number of years it has become a foreign investor as well. Earlier investment had been a modest scale, primarily in Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and Southwest Pacific. In the last decade, two important changes have been hastened by a general policy of liberalisation towards capital outflows. Firstly, the Australian DFI (direct foreign investment) has increased significantly. Secondly, there has been a considerable geographical diversification towards the neighbouring Asian countries as opposed to their former alliance and dependence on North America and as the European Union.

(C)SCQ:Write short note on the following in about 100 words each. 
Q.7.Australia and regional groupings. 
Ans.Australia is a country of continental size and is located at the intersection of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It has played an important role in the formation and success of various regional organisations, associations. It is an important regional actor, without which presence the activities of some of the regional associations could not have been sustained. It is a dialogue partner of Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and a member of the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR – ARC) and the South Pacific Forum (SPF).
Q.8.Peace Movement and Human Rights in Australia. 
Ans. Peace Movements originated out of the destruction and devastation caused by the two world wars. Australian are in general a very peace loving people and are rather concerned with economic development so that their high standard of living is maintained. Successive government joined the wars but the majority of the public considered these wars imperialistic and opposed Australia’s participation in them. Australia strongly advocates non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.
There is concern about the Human Rights situation in Australia. The country raises the questions about human rights in various international for a. In fact, a big section of the indigenous people still feel deprived of the necessary basic human rights. Even the majority of the common white population feels that their rights are not well protected. Thus, there is greater need to ensure human rights of its own people.

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